RESPIRATORY DISEASE “BRONCHITIS”

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INTRODUCTION


A.  Background
      Breathing or respiration is a process of making oxygen, through the use karbohhidrat expenditure of energy in the body. Human beings breathe in oxygen in the air and remove carbon dioxide into the environment. 
1. Respiratory system consists of the nose, trachea, lungs, ribs, muscles interkosta, bronchus, bronkiol, alveoli and diaphragm. 
2. The air is drawn into the lungs through the nose and trachea. 
3. Tracheal wall supported by a band prone to be strong and always open 
4. The trachea branches to the right bronchus and left bronchus connected to the lungs. 
5. Alveolus has the following adjustments to facilitate the exchange of gases: 
    a. Filled with a lot of blood capillaries 
    b. Cell wall one cell thick (thin cell wall) 
    c. Large surfaces and damp. 

Breathing Mechanism
A. This attraction is divided into breathing and breath. 
B. Involves several changes, including: 
     a. Muscle interkosta
     b. Rib  
     c. Diaphragm
     d.Thoracic cavity isipadu  
     e. The air pressure in the lungs
C. During tensile breath 
Muscles outside the contract interkosta ( rib is increased to above) the diaphragm relaxed     (diaphragm becomes flat), the contents of the thoracic cavity and solid lung pressure is low, the air pressure higher into the air declined lungs. 
D. During breath 
Interkosta outer muscle relaxed (relaxed rib down) 
E. Diaphragm muscles relax (diaphragm curved upwards) solid content thoracic cavity air pressure decreases and the lungs is high, the air pressure in the lungs rejected higher air out.




DISCUSSION
“BRONCHITIS”

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (the airways to the lungs). This disease is usually mild and will eventually complete recovery. But in patients who have chronic diseases (such as heart disease or lung disease) and in old age, bronchitis can be serious.
A.Causes 
     Infectious bronchitis caused by viruses, bacteria and organisms that resemble bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia).Recurrent bronchitis attacks can occur in smokers and people with lung disease and chronic respiratory tract. Recurrent infections may be a result of: 
  • Chronic Sinusitis 
  • bronchiectasis 
  • Allergies 
  • Enlarged tonsils and adenoid in children. 
Irritating bronchitis can be caused by: 
  • Various types of dust 
  • Smoke from strong acids, ammonia, some organic solvents, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur      dioxide and bromine 
  • Air pollution that causes irritation of ozone and nitrogen dioxide 
  • Tobacco and other cigarette. 

B.Symptoms 
Symptoms include: 
  • coughing up phlegm (may dahaknya reddish) 
  • shortness of breath during exercise or mild activity 
  • often suffer from respiratory infections (eg flu) 
  • asthma 
  • fatigue 
  • swelling of ankles, feet and legs left and right 
  • face, palms of hands or mucous membranes are reddish 
  • cheeks looked rosy 
  • headache 
  • visual impairment. 
           Infectious bronchitis often begins with symptoms such as runny nose, ie runny nose, fatigue, chills, backache, muscle aches, mild fever and sore throat. Coughing is usually a sign of the beginning of bronchitis. In the beginning was not coughing up phlegm, but 1-2 days later to remove phlegm white or yellow. Next sputum will multiply, yellow or green. In severe bronchitis, after most of the other symptoms improve, sometimes there is a high fever for 3-5 days and the cough may persist for several weeks. Shortness of breath occurs when the airway is blocked. Often found in the sound of wheezing breath, especially after coughing. Pneumonia can occur.


C.Diagnosis 
     The diagnosis is usually established on the basis of symptoms, especially from the mucus. On examination with a stethoscope to hear the sound ronki or abnormal respiratory sounds. 
Other tests commonly performed: 
  • Tests of lung function 
  • Arterial blood gases 
  • Chest X-rays.


D.Medical 
      To reduce fever and feeling unwell, to the adult patient can be given aspirin or acetaminophen; to children should only be given acetaminophen. It is advisable to rest and drink plenty of fluids. Antibiotics given to patients whose symptoms indicate that the cause is a bacterial infection (dahaknya yellow or green, and high fever) and patients who previously had lung disease. To adult patients given trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracyclin or ampicillin. Erythromycin was given even though the cause was suspected of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. To people with children given amoxicillin. If the cause is a virus, antibiotics are not given. If symptoms persist or recurrent or if bronkitisnya very heavy, so be cultured from sputum examination to help determine whether the necessary replacement of antibiotics.



CONDUCTION
A.CONCLUTION
            So inferential disease bronchitis be causes by viruses, bacteria and organisms that resemble bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia). With be is an inflammation of the bronchi (the airways to the lungs).
B.SUGGESTION
Ø  No smoking because to tease my health
Ø  Environtment keep cleaning

BIBLIOGRAPHY


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·         http///afraidtoask.com
·         http///bro dengan respirasi@com



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